Infection and Drug Resistance (2020-09-01)

Tuberculosis in Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis During Ruxolitinib Therapy: Case Series and Literature Review

  • Peng Y,
  • Meng L,
  • Hu X,
  • Han Z,
  • Hong Z

Journal volume & issue
Vol. Volume 13
pp. 3309 – 3316

Abstract

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Yizhou Peng,1 Li Meng,1 Xuemei Hu,2 Zhiqiang Han,3 Zhenya Hong1 1Department of Hematology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s People’s Republic of China; 3Cancer Biology Research Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of ChinaCorrespondence: Zhenya HongDepartment of Hematology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jie-Fang Avenue, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, People’s Republic of ChinaTel/Fax +86 027-83665046Email [email protected] HanCancer Biology Research Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jie-Fang Avenue, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, People’s Republic of ChinaEmail [email protected]: The selective Janus-activated kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib (rux) is now widely used to treat myelofibrosis and polycythemia vera due to its remarkable effect of reducing splenomegaly and improving constitutional symptoms. With opportunistic infections secondary to rux constantly reported; however, an increasing number of studies have begun to investigate the mechanism and underlying immunosuppressive effect of rux.Case Presentation: We report two cases of tuberculosis (TB) in primary myelofibrosis patients during rux therapy. The first patient received rux soon after diagnosis, and tracheobronchial TB (TBTB) and bronchoesophageal fistula were found after 4 months. After discontinuation of rux, antituberculosis therapy (ATT) was introduced. The second patient initiated rux due to progressive splenomegaly after 7.5 years of interferon therapy and was diagnosed with disseminated TB after 2 months. He received ATT as well. His rux was maintained due to the high burden of systematic symptoms and splenomegaly. Both myelofibrosis and TB were well controlled in these patients.Conclusion: This is the first case report that describes rux-related TBTB accompanied by a bronchoesophageal fistula. Through a review of the literature, we provide supporting evidence to the finding that intrinsic disorders of myeloproliferative neoplasms and rux-induced immunologic deregulation together lead to TB. We highlight the importance of screening for latent TB infection and timely chemoprophylaxis before rux therapy. Once TB is diagnosed during treatment, rux is recommended to be stopped and active ATT should begin quickly.Keywords: myelofibrosis, ruxolitinib, tuberculosis, infection

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