Summary: Innate responses of myeloid cells defend against pathogenic bacteria via inducible effectors. Deoxyhypusine synthase (DHPS) catalyzes the transfer of the N-moiety of spermidine to the lysine-50 residue of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (EIF5A) to form the amino acid hypusine. Hypusinated EIF5A (EIF5AHyp) transports specific mRNAs to ribosomes for translation. We show that DHPS is induced in macrophages by two gastrointestinal pathogens, Helicobacter pylori and Citrobacter rodentium, resulting in enhanced hypusination of EIF5A. EIF5AHyp was also increased in gastric macrophages from patients with H. pylori gastritis. Furthermore, we identify the bacteria-induced immune effectors regulated by hypusination. This set of proteins includes essential constituents of antimicrobial response and autophagy. Mice with myeloid cell-specific deletion of Dhps exhibit reduced EIF5AHyp in macrophages and increased bacterial burden and inflammation. Thus, regulation of translation through hypusination is a critical hallmark of the defense of eukaryotic hosts against pathogenic bacteria.