Tehran University Medical Journal (Sep 2020)
Effect of sublingual Misoprostol in combination with oxytocin in reducing blood loss during and after cesarean delivery: a randomized clinical trial
Background: One of the main causes of maternal death in developing countries is postpartum hemorrhage. Cesarean section is one of the most common surgeries all around the world. In comparison with normal vaginal delivery, cesarean section is a greater risk factor for postpartum hemorrhage and need for blood transfusion. The risk of postpartum hemorrhage will increase when other risk factors such as multiple pregnancies, polyhydramnios, severe preeclampsia, peripartum hemorrhage, protracted labor, labor induction, and obesity are present. Oxytocin is conventionally used for the prevention of uterine atony during the cesarean section. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of sublingual misoprostol in combination with oxytocin in reducing blood loss during and after cesarean delivery. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was performed in Ommolbanin hospital; an academic hospital that is affiliated to Mashhad University of medical sciences from September 2016 to January 2018. The subjects were 90 pregnant women with a term pregnancies who were candidates for emergent cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia and were at high risk for postpartum hemorrhage. All participants received 40 IU oxytocin in 1 liter of normal saline after delivery, and then they were randomly assigned to the intervention group who received 400 μg sublingual misoprostol in combination with oxytocin infusion, and the control group who received only oxytocin infusion without adding misoprostol. Results: Sublingual misoprostol in combination with oxytocin infusion during cesarean section led to a significant decrease in postoperative blood loss for six hours after the surgery (P<0.001). The decline in the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and the amount of intraoperative hemorrhage were the same in both groups. Less additional uterotonic agents were needed in the misoprostol group. The frequency of fever and other side effects were similar in the two groups. Conclusion: It seems that adding sublingual misoprostol to oxytocin infusion among high-risk women for postpartum hemorrhage is more effective for reducing blood loss during and after cesarean section.