Abstract Artificial neural networks are becoming an integral part of digital solutions to complex problems. However, employing neural networks on quantum processors faces challenges related to the implementation of non-linear functions using quantum circuits. In this paper, we use repeat-until-success circuits enabled by real-time control-flow feedback to realize quantum neurons with non-linear activation functions. These neurons constitute elementary building blocks that can be arranged in a variety of layouts to carry out deep learning tasks quantum coherently. As an example, we construct a minimal feedforward quantum neural network capable of learning all 2-to-1-bit Boolean functions by optimization of network activation parameters within the supervised-learning paradigm. This model is shown to perform non-linear classification and effectively learns from multiple copies of a single training state consisting of the maximal superposition of all inputs.