Veterinary World (Jan 2021)

Chemical composition and antioxidant content of Thymus vulgaris honey and Origanum vulgare essential oil; their effect on carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity

  • Hamada Imtara,
  • Noori Al-Waili,
  • Abderrazak Aboulghazi,
  • Abdelfattah Abdellaoui,
  • Thia Al-Waili,
  • Badiaa Lyoussi

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 14, no. 1
pp. 292 – 301


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Aim: The study investigated the chemical composition, antioxidant content, and antioxidant activity of Thymus vulgaris honey (TVH) and Origanum vulgare essential oil (OVEO) and their mixture effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: The study conducted physicochemical characterization and chemical analysis of TVH and OVEO with the use of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). The antioxidant activity of TVH and OVEO was done with the use of 1,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The study used nine groups of rats to investigate the effect of TVH, OVEO, and a mixture of TVH and OVEO (HEM) on CCl4-induced toxicity. Intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (1 mL/100 g) was used to induce toxicity. The doses of TVH and OVEO were 1 mg/kg.b.wt, and 50 mg/kg.b.wt, respectively. HEM contains TVH (1 mg/kg.b.wt) and OVEO (50 mg/kg.b.wt). Results: TVH has a high content of phenols, flavonoids, and flavanols. HPLC analysis showed that TVH contains, for the 1st time, epicatechin gallate, and at a high concentration. OVEO includes a high percentage of carvacrol and thymol. With the use of DPPH, OVEO was more potent than TVH. CCl4 caused significant liver and kidney damage and lipid disorders, which were alleviated by HVT, OVEO, and HEM. HVT was more potent than OVEO (p<0.05), and HEM was more potent than HVT and OVEO (p<0.05). Conclusion: The study identified high content of epicatechin gallate for the 1st time in TVH, and OVEO contains a high percentage of thymol and carvacrol. Epicatechin gallate might be useful as a marker for TVH. Mixing OVEO and TVH significantly potentiated their protection against CCl4-induced liver and kidney toxicity.