Cancer Management and Research (Nov 2021)

Automatic Segmentation of Clinical Target Volume and Organs-at-Risk for Breast Conservative Radiotherapy Using a Convolutional Neural Network

  • Liu Z,
  • Liu F,
  • Chen W,
  • Tao Y,
  • Liu X,
  • Zhang F,
  • Shen J,
  • Guan H,
  • Zhen H,
  • Wang S,
  • Chen Q,
  • Chen Y,
  • Hou X

Journal volume & issue
Vol. Volume 13
pp. 8209 – 8217


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Zhikai Liu,1 Fangjie Liu,2,* Wanqi Chen,1,* Yinjie Tao,1 Xia Liu,1 Fuquan Zhang,1 Jing Shen,1 Hui Guan,1 Hongnan Zhen,1 Shaobin Wang,3 Qi Chen,3 Yu Chen,3 Xiaorong Hou1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100730, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, 510060, People’s Republic of China; 3MedMind Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing, 100055, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workCorrespondence: Xiaorong Hou Tel +86 138 1196 3013Email [email protected]: Delineation of clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) is important for radiotherapy but is time-consuming. We trained and evaluated a U-ResNet model to provide fast and consistent auto-segmentation.Methods: We collected 160 patients’ CT scans with breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and were treated with radiotherapy. CTV and OARs were delineated manually and were used for model training. The dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and 95th percentile Hausdorff distance (95HD) were used to assess the performance of our model. CTV and OARs were randomly selected as ground truth (GT) masks, and artificial intelligence (AI) masks were generated by the proposed model. Two clinicians randomly compared CTV score differences of the contour. The consistency between two clinicians was tested. Time cost for auto-delineation was evaluated.Results: The mean DSC values of the proposed method were 0.94, 0.95, 0.94, 0.96, 0.96 and 0.93 for breast CTV, contralateral breast, heart, right lung, left lung and spinal cord, respectively. The mean 95HD values were 4.31mm, 3.59mm, 4.86mm, 3.18mm, 2.79mm and 4.37mm for the above structures, respectively. The average CTV scores for AI and GT were 2.89 versus 2.92 when evaluated by oncologist A (P=0.612), and 2.75 versus 2.83 by oncologist B (P=0.213), with no statistically significant differences. The consistency between two clinicians was poor (kappa=0.282). The time for auto-segmentation of CTV and OARs was 10.03 s.Conclusion: Our proposed model (U-ResNet) can improve the efficiency and accuracy of delineation compared with U-Net, performing equally well with the segmentation generated by oncologists.Keywords: clinical target volume, organ at risk, auto-segmentation, breast cancer radiotherapy, clinical evaluation