Evaluating the link between the sulfur-rich Laacher See volcanic eruption and the Younger Dryas climate anomaly

Climate of the Past. 2018;14:969-990 DOI 10.5194/cp-14-969-2018


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Journal Title: Climate of the Past

ISSN: 1814-9324 (Print); 1814-9332 (Online)

Publisher: Copernicus Publications

Society/Institution: European Geosciences Union (EGU)

LCC Subject Category: Technology: Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering: Environmental pollution | Technology: Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering: Environmental protection | Geography. Anthropology. Recreation: Environmental sciences

Country of publisher: Germany

Language of fulltext: English

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J. U. L. Baldini (Department of Earth Sciences, University of Durham, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK)

R. J. Brown (Department of Earth Sciences, University of Durham, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK)

N. Mawdsley (Department of Earth Sciences, University of Durham, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK)


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Time From Submission to Publication: 38 weeks


Abstract | Full Text

<p>The Younger Dryas is considered the archetypal millennial-scale climate change event, and identifying its cause is fundamental for thoroughly understanding climate systematics during deglaciations. However, the mechanisms responsible for its initiation remain elusive, and both of the most researched triggers (a meltwater pulse or a bolide impact) are controversial. Here, we consider the problem from a different perspective and explore a hypothesis that Younger Dryas climate shifts were catalysed by the unusually sulfur-rich 12.880 ± 0.040 ka BP eruption of the Laacher See volcano (Germany). We use the most recent chronology for the GISP2 ice core ion dataset from the Greenland ice sheet to identify a large volcanic sulfur spike coincident with both the Laacher See eruption and the onset of Younger Dryas-related cooling in Greenland (i.e. the most recent abrupt Greenland millennial-scale cooling event, the Greenland Stadial 1, GS-1). Previously published lake sediment and stalagmite records confirm that the eruption's timing was indistinguishable from the onset of cooling across the North Atlantic but that it preceded westerly wind repositioning over central Europe by  ∼  200 years. We suggest that the initial short-lived volcanic sulfate aerosol cooling was amplified by ocean circulation shifts and/or sea ice expansion, gradually cooling the North Atlantic region and incrementally shifting the midlatitude westerlies to the south. The aerosol-related cooling probably only lasted 1–3 years, and the majority of Younger Dryas-related cooling may have been due to the sea-ice–ocean circulation positive feedback, which was particularly effective during the intermediate ice volume conditions characteristic of  ∼  13 ka BP. We conclude that the large and sulfur-rich Laacher See eruption should be considered a viable trigger for the Younger Dryas. However, future studies should prioritise climate modelling of high-latitude volcanism during deglacial boundary conditions in order to test the hypothesis proposed here.</p>