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Mongolian Nomads in the Ulus of Jochi (Golden Horde) According to Archaeological Materials

Zolotoordynskoe Obozrenie. 2019;7(4):636-651 DOI 10.22378/2313-6197.2019-7-4.636-651


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Journal Title: Zolotoordynskoe Obozrenie

ISSN: 2308-152X (Print); 2313-6197 (Online)

Publisher: State Institution «Sh.Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences»

Society/Institution: Shigabutdin Marjani Institute of History of Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan

LCC Subject Category: Auxiliary sciences of history: History of Civilization

Country of publisher: Russian Federation

Language of fulltext: English, Russian

Full-text formats available: PDF



Ivanov V.A. (Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M. Akmulla Ufa, Russian Federation [email protected])


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Time From Submission to Publication: 20 weeks


Abstract | Full Text

Objective: To show that among the many nomadic burials of the ulus of Jochi (Golden Horde) of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries there are also burials of the Mongols proper, to give their morphological characteristics, and outline the distribution area of burials. Materials: The results of a comparative-typological analysis of burials under stone barrows both in the territory of the ulus of Jochi and in the east of the Eurasian steppe: Mongolia, Transbaikalia, Altai, and Tien Shan. Results and novelty of the research: The fact that the Mongols conquered the steppes of Eastern Europe implies the presence of the Mongols in the conquered territories, and this should be reflected in archaeological materials. However, for a long time, due to the peculiarities of the development of the archaeology of the medieval nomads of Eurasia, archaeological materials from the east of the Great Steppe were at the disposal of researchers in extremely small amounts. Therefore, all attempts to determine ethnicity regarding the nomadic monuments of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in Eastern Europe were based on their comparison with the numerous Kipchak monuments in this territory. In turn, the Mongolian influence on the culture of the Golden Horde nomads was considered through the prism of the appearance of a complex of objects that had not been previously encountered with the Kipchak culture and therefore were perceived to be Mongolian ones, a priori: items of horse equipment, weapons, women’s jewelry and costume details. For its part, the absence of characteristic Mongolian burials was explained by the assimilation of the Mongols by local tribes, based on a corresponding statement by al-Umari. To date, the volume of archaeological materials from the east of Eurasian Steppe has substantially increased, allowing one to carry out a comparative-typological analysis of nomadic burials in the territories of the ulus of Jochi and Mongolia. In turn, this analysis made it possible to distinguish the Mongol burials among the nomadic monuments of the Golden Horde, provide their morphological characteristics, and determine the geography of their distribution in the steppes of Eastern Europe.