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Optimal Distribution of Renewable Energy Systems Considering Aging and Long-Term Weather Effect in Net-Zero Energy Building Design

Sustainability. 2020;12(5570):5570 DOI 10.3390/su12145570


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Journal Title: Sustainability

ISSN: 2071-1050 (Online)

Publisher: MDPI AG

LCC Subject Category: Technology: Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering: Environmental effects of industries and plants | Technology: Mechanical engineering and machinery: Renewable energy sources | Geography. Anthropology. Recreation: Environmental sciences

Country of publisher: Switzerland

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, ePUB, XML



Yuehong Lu (Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Anhui University of Technology, Ma’anshan 243002, China)

Mohammed Alghassab (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shaqra University, Riyadh 11911, Saudi Arabia)

Manuel S. Alvarez-Alvarado (Faculty of Engineering in Electricity and Computing, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, Guayaquil EC 09-01-5863, Ecuador)

Hasan Gunduz (Department of Electricity and Energy, Mus Alparslan University, Mus 49250, Turkey)

Zafar A. Khan (Department of Electrical Engineering, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur (A.K.) 10250, Pakistan)

Muhammad Imran (School of Engineering and Applied Science, Mechanical Engineering and Design, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK)


Blind peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 11 weeks


Abstract | Full Text

Generation system interruptions in net-zero energy buildings (NZEBs) may result in missing the net-zero targets by a great margin. Consequently, it is significant to incorporate a realistic reliability model for renewable energy systems (RESs) that considers aging and long-term weather conditions. This study proposed a robust design optimization method that deals with the selection of RES to achieve NZEB. Different case studies were evaluated: 1. Deterministic approach; 2. Markov chain-based reliability without the aging effect; 3. Markov chain-based reliability with the aging effect. The results showed that the optimal sizes of RES, considering the aging effect, were much larger than the other two cases based on the annual energy balance. Moreover, the consideration of the aging effect on the reliability assessment of the generation system for NZEB opens a pathway for a more robust and economic design of RES.