Proper nouns (anthroponyms) in Polish translations of Voltaire’s philosophical novel “Candide ou l’optimisme” Summary The aim of this paper is to verify how the translational horizon influences the treatment of anthroponyms in two Polish translations of Voltaire’s philosophical novel “Candide ou l’optimisme”. The paper includes the comparative analysis of selected names of human beings coming from the translations chosen and from the original. A long period between the appearanceof translations (about one hundred and fifty years) and the related changes had a major impact on the treatment of anthroponyms. The paper shows that the translational horizon plays a crucial role in the translation process and is demonstrated by various translation techniques used in the text. However, the diff erences in the treatment of anthroponyms are not always linked to the changes of translational horizon but are oft en the result of the translator’s subjectivity. The translation process depends also on the functions assigned to the anthroponyms in the original.