Cardiovascular Diabetology (Dec 2022)

The clinical value of metabolic syndrome and its components with respect to sudden cardiac death using different definitions: Two decades of follow-up from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

  • Soroush Masrouri,
  • Seyyed Saeed Moazzeni,
  • Neda Cheraghloo,
  • Fereidoun Azizi,
  • Farzad Hadaegh

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 21, no. 1
pp. 1 – 12


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Abstract Background To evaluate the impact of different definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their components on the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among the Iranian population according to the World Health Organization (WHO), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III), and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. Methods The study population included a total of 5,079 participants (2,785 women) aged ≥ 40 years, free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline. Participants were followed for incident SCD annually up to 20 March 2018. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of MetS and its components for incident SCD. Results The prevalence of MetS ranged from 27.16% to 50.81%, depending on the criteria used. Over a median of 17.9 years of follow-up, 182 SCD events occurred. The WHO, IDF, and JIS definitions were strong predictors of SCD with multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) of 1.68 (1.20–2.35), 1.51 (1.12–2.03), and 1.47 (1.08–1.98), respectively; these associations significantly attenuated after further adjustment for MetS components. MetS by the ATP III definition was not associated with the risk of SCD after controlling for antihypertensive, glucose-lowering, and lipid-lowering medication use. Among the components of MetS, high blood pressure (WHO definition), high waist circumference (using the national cutoff of ≥ 95 cm), and high glucose component by the JIS/IDF definitions remained independent predictors of SCD with HRs of 1.79 (1.29–2.48), 1.46 (1.07–2.00), and 1.52 (1.12–2.05), respectively. Conclusions The constellation of MetS, except for when defined with ATP III definition, is a marker for identifying individuals at higher risk for SCD; however, not independent of its components. Among MetS components, abdominal obesity using the population-specific cutoff point, high glucose component (JIS/IDF definitions), and high blood pressure (WHO definition) were independent predictors of SCD.