Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports (2020-09-01)

Glycogenin-1 deficiency mimicking limb-girdle muscular dystrophy

  • Claire Lefeuvre,
  • Stéphane Schaeffer,
  • Robert-Yves Carlier,
  • Maxime Fournier,
  • Françoise Chapon,
  • Valérie Biancalana,
  • Guillaume Nicolas,
  • Edoardo Malfatti,
  • Pascal Laforêt

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 24
p. 100597


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Glycogen storage disease type XV (GSD XV) is a recently described muscle glycogenosis due to glycogenin-1 (GYG1) deficiency characterized by the presence of polyglucosan bodies on muscle biopsy (Polyglucosan body myopathy-2, PGBM2). Here we describe a 44 year-old man with limb-girdle muscle weakness mimicking a limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD), and early onset exertional myalgia. Neurologic examination revealed a waddling gait with hyperlordosis, bilateral asymmetric scapular winging, mild asymmetric deltoid and biceps brachii weakness, and pelvic-girdle weakness involving the gluteal muscles and, to a lesser extent, the quadriceps. Serum creatine kinase levels were slightly elevated. Electrophysiological examination showed a myopathic pattern. There was no cardiac or respiratory involvement. Whole-body muscle MRI revealed atrophy and fat replacement of the tongue, biceps brachii, pelvic girdle and erector spinae. A deltoid muscle biopsy showed the presence of PAS-positive inclusions that remained non-digested with alpha-amylase treatment. Electron microscopy studies confirmed the presence of polyglucosan bodies. A diagnostic gene panel designed by the Genetic Diagnosis Laboratory of Strasbourg University Hospital (France) for 210 muscular disorders genes disclosed two heterozygous, pathogenic GYG1 gene mutations (c.304G>C;p.(Asp102His) + c.164_165del).Considering the clinical heterogeneity found in the previously described 38 GYG-1 deficient patients, we suggest that GYG1 should be systematically included in targeted NGS gene panels for LGMDs, distal myopathies, and metabolic myopathies.