Aim of investigation. To present to the new data on initial digestive potential of the full-term and premature newborns according to the level of digestive enzymes in serum of the puerperant woman and her child, stomach content of latter and amniotic waters. Material and methods. Material was received from 76 puerpera and their newborns at the full-term and premature pregnancies. Content of hydrolases: amylase, lipase, pepsinogens-I and II was assessed in blood serum of umbilical cord, venous blood of the mother, amniotic fluid and newborn stomach content. Enzymes were detected by Roche diagnostic kit, pepsinogens - Abbott immunoassay test. Results. Fetal development of different enzyme systems digestive potential develops in different terms, and is significantly lower in the newborn, then in the mother, in premature children it is lower, than in those born often normal gestation term. Pepsinogen II concentration is higher than that of pepsinogen I both in stomach content and amniotic fluid. Conclusions. Newborn digestive potential at the end of gestation is determined by his/her digestive glands and can be characterized by hydrolases activity in amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and stomach content. This potential acts as is gastroenterological criterion for breast-feeding readiness.