AIM: To measure the macular structure of amblyopia eyes and non-amblyopia eyes in children with monocular hyperopic amblyopia and in normal children by optical coherence tomography(OCT). METHODS: Fifty-six children with monocular hyperopic amblyopia and 75 normal children were selected. The macular retinal thickness and the macular retinal volume were measured by OCT. Data was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The thinnest part of retina was at the center retina, and the thickest part was the inner ring, while the outer ring was thinner than the inner ring in the amblyopia eyes group. Among the four quadrants of the inner ring, the thickest quadrant was the nasal quadrant(335.58±17.42μm),and the thinner part was superior quadrant(326.42±15.36μm), the next was the inferior quadrant,the thinnest part was the temporal quadrant. The trend of outer ring was the same as the inner ring. The quadrant differences of non-amblyopia eyes and normal eyes were same with amblyopia eyes. The center 1mm of macula, nasal quadrant and superior quadrant retinal thickness of inner ring were thicker in amblyopia eyes group than that in non-amblyopia eyes group and normal eyes group(PP>0. 05). The other quadrant retinal thickness was not different in amblyopia eyes group, non- amblyopia eyes group and normal eyes group(P>0.05). In amblyopia eyes group, non- amblyopia eyes group and normal eyes group, the smallest retinal volume was macular retinal volume, the biggest volume was nasal retinal volume of inner ring, then was superior retinal volume and inferior retinal volume,the smallest was temporal retinal volume. The change of retinal volume in outer ring was same as inner ring. The difference of central 1mm macular retinal volume, nasal quadrant and superior quadrant retinal thickness of inner ring in amblyopia eyes group was statistically significant compared with non-amblyopia eyes group and normal eyes group(PP>0. 05). CONCLUSION: OCT can accurately measure macular retinal structure, the difference of macular retinal structure between amblyopia eyes, non-amblyopia eye and normal eyes may be associated with the peripheral mechanism of amblyopia.