The current work describes the single-parent family in theory from the perspective of the vulnerable social group, which requires state intervention for protection and specialized and adapted support. The characteristics of social vulnerability and the types of vulnerabilities are being presented synthetically in order to identify the vulnerability of the social group of the single-parent family. Among elements of vulnerability of the single-parent family a special presentation is given to those that negatively impact the shaping of children character educated amidst such groups, as they emerge from the specialized studies on the matter. We are aiming the low academic achievement of such children, more prevalent criminal behaviour, integration problems in the school environment and in the students' group, features that may be influenced by the absence of a parent, by financial and emotional problems of family members. The single-parent family stands for a social unit with a more and more prevalent identification in contemporary society, which makes up for a legitimate object of interest as to knowing data on its functionality, the difficulties it faces, the quality of its relations with society, the positive and negative elements that mark childrens' life. The profile of the single-parent family and membership to this type of family may have an influence through destructured internal family social capital, so that the family's structural deficiencies, family relations that do not match an optimal family environment, lead to medium and long-term effects on child development. By acknowledging the effects of family structure on the behaviour of single-parent family children, a certain framework of potential actions and steps may be outlined which can provide them with a safety net and can ensure them with the fundamentals of an adequate social, academic and professional life. On the ground of shared responsibility, this approach must involve all significant actors that have potential of active and proactive involvement in relation to the issue of children from single-parent families.