Breast cancer (BRCA) is one of the most deadly cancers worldwide, with poor survival rates that could be due to its high proliferation. Human all-alpha dCTP pyrophosphatase 1 (DCTPP1) is implicated in numerous diseases, including cancers. However, its role in BRCA is unclear. In this study, we used bioinformatic analyses of the ONCOMINE, UALCAN, and GEPIA databases to determine the expression pattern of DCTPP1 in BRCA. We found that elevated DCTPP1 levels correlate with poor BRCA prognosis. DCTPP1 silencing inhibited BRCA cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro, as well as in vivo. Our data show that this tumorigenic effect depends on DNA repair signaling. Moreover, we found that DCTPP1 is directly modulated by miR-378a-3p, whose downregulation is linked to BRCA progression. Our results showed down-regulation of miR-378a-3p in BRCA. Upregulation of miR-378a-3p, on the other hand, can inhibit BRCA cell growth and proliferation. This study shows that reduced miR-378a-3p level enhances DCTPP1 expression in BRCA, which promotes proliferation by activating DNA repair signaling in BRCA.