Materials (Mar 2023)

Green Synthesis of Iridium Nanoparticles from Winery Waste and Their Catalytic Effectiveness in Water Decontamination

  • Lucia Mergola,
  • Luigi Carbone,
  • Tiziana Stomeo,
  • Roberta Del Sole

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 16, no. 5
p. 2060


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An environmentally friendly procedure was adopted for the first time to prepare green iridium nanoparticles starting from grape marc extracts. Grape marcs, waste of Negramaro winery production, were subjected to aqueous thermal extraction at different temperatures (45, 65, 80, and 100 °C) and characterized in terms of total phenolic contents, reducing sugars, and antioxidant activity. The results obtained showed an important effect of temperature with higher amounts of polyphenols and reducing sugars and antioxidant activity in the extracts with the increase of temperature. All four extracts were used as starting materials to synthesize different iridium nanoparticles (Ir-NP1, Ir-NP2, Ir-NP3, and Ir-NP4) that were characterized by Uv-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. TEM analysis revealed the presence of very small particles in all samples with sizes in the range of 3.0–4.5 nm with the presence of a second fraction of larger nanoparticles (7.5–17.0 nm) for Ir-NPs prepared with extracts obtained at higher temperatures (Ir-NP3 and Ir-NP4). Since the wastewater remediation of toxic organic contaminants on catalytic reduction has gained much attention, the application of the prepared Ir-NPs as catalysts towards the reduction of methylene blue (MB), chosen as the organic dye model, was evaluated. The efficient catalytic activity of Ir-NPs in the reduction of MB by NaBH4 was demonstrated and Ir-NP2 was prepared using the extract obtained at 65 °C, showing the best catalytic performance, with a rate constant of 0.527 ± 0.012 min−1 and MB reduction of 96.1% in just six min, with stability for over 10 months.