Abstract Background Burkina Faso is a high endemicity country for HBV infection. However, there are few data on vaccine coverage against HBV. The aim of this study was to contribute to the improvement of HBV vaccine coverage in Ouagadougou through HBV screening. Methods Awareness campaigns and voluntary hepatitis B screening were organized in the twelve districts of Ouagadougou by the “SOS Hepatitis Burkina” association. A rapid HBsAg detection test (Abon Biopharma Guangzhou, Co., Ltd. Chine) was performed on 2216 individuals, who voluntarily answered a series of questions. Vaccination against hepatitis B was proposed to HBV negative participants. Results In a sample of 2216 participants, aged 1 to 78 years (mean age 29.7 ± 14.7 years); a prevalence of 10.4% (230/2216) of HBsAg was obtained. This prevalence was high in the age groups 31 to 40 years (14.5%) and 41 to 50 years (15.0%). The prevalence of HBV was higher in the sixth district (14.3%) of Ouagadougou. At the end of the screening, 1202/1986 HBV negative participants were vaccinated, resulting in a vaccination rate of 60.5%. Vaccination coverage ranged from 44.5 to 73.7% all twelve districts. Conclusions This study still reports a high prevalence of HBV infection among young people with a peak in the sixth district of Ouagadougou. The study achieved high vaccination coverage in all age groups and districts of Ouagadougou. Trial registration The present study has been approved by the Ethics Committee for Health Research of Burkina Faso. CERS201501006 Registered 14 January 2015.