Objective: To estimate costs associated to hospital treatment of urinary lithiasis in the Brazilian public health system as well as to evaluate demographic and epidemiological data referred to hospital admissions in the Brazilian public health system (or unified health care system). Methods: Data from the Informatic Department of Brazilian public health system were obtained as referred to costs in hospital admissions for urinary lithiasis during 2010 and also epidemiological data from 1996 through 2010. Results: There were 69,039 hospital admissions for urinary lithiasis, totaling 0.61% of all hospital admissions in the Brazilian public health system. The mean cost of each of these hospital admissions was US$ 240,23 or R$ 423.42 having as result an overall cost of US$ 16,240,378.00 or R$ 29.232.682,56. Hospital admissions for urinary lithiasis in the Brazilian public health system increased 69% from 1996 to 2010 (43,176 versus 69,309; p < 0.001; OR = 1.69). The number of hospital admissions was 5% greater between December and March as compared to the period between June and September (35,290 versus 33,749; p < 0.001; OR = 1.10). For Caucasian patients the hospital admission was 75% greater as compared to black patients (63.2% versus 35.8%; p = 0.02; OR = 1,75). Conclusion: Hospital admission for urinary liyhiasis has an elevated impact on the public health system with a cost of US$ 16,2 or R$ 29.2 million per year. The number of hospital admissions was greater in hotter months than in cold ones and also in the last decade, mainly in Caucasian population. These data may be helpful for the organization and optimization of health programs in the public health system as referred to prevention and treatment of urinary lithiasis in Brazil.