In the capitalism economic history the search for the economic development was always associated with industrialization. However, with internationalization of the production and the great technological innovation, the industrialization did not solve the problem of underdevelopment. This thesis wanted to analyze the relation between industrialization and economic development and the limits of the regional public politics in this process, especially what happened in the region of Vale do Paraíba in São Paulo state after the Second World War. Analysing the series of historical quantitative information, limited in respect to development, it was possible to conclude that the politics of economic development in Vale do Paraíba succeeded in relation to the economic growth, but failed in the process of space distribution of the income, with your great concentration after these politics on 70’s, due to the reduction of the spillover on the other neighbouring areas. The politics of regional development must be reconsidered with actions that favours the endogenous politics in this economic world more and more global and with local social responsibilities.