INTRODUCTION: High-quality health research is needed in Africa to find innovative solutions for health care challenges on the continent. However, research output remains low, and obstacles to research poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the facilitators and barriers to health research among Cameroonian physicians. METHODS: an e-survey was conducted among a convenience sample of Cameroonian physicians between May 23, 2020, to June 07, 2020. The Likert scale responses were coded and used to calculate a Preference Score (PS). The median and total PS were used to categorize and rank the barriers and facilitators. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used with a threshold of significance of 0.05. Also, the Bonferroni test was used to correct the P-value (0.025). RESULTS: two hundred and ninety five physicians aged 29.2 ± 3.5 years responded to the survey. Most participants were male (56.3%), French speakers (75.9%), and general practitioners (56.6%). Respondents published 2.4 articles (95% CI: 1.5-3.2), and significant barriers to research included the lack of a research team (Kruskal-Wallis H=6.29, P=0.012) and difficulties to get an ethical clearance (Kruskal-Wallis H=5.57, P=0.018). Grant availability was an important determinant of research involvement (Kruskal-Wallis H=3.90, P=0.048). CONCLUSION: high-quality and context-appropriate research can help tackle the high burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa. To increase research output among Cameroonian physicians, strategies should minimize the barriers and maximize the facilitators identified in this study.