Phytovirus vectors Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom, 1920) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feed on crops of great economic importance brings large economic losses worldwide to cultivated species such as tomato and cotton. F. schultzei transmits Tospovirus, Groundnut ring spot virus (GRSV) and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) to tomato plants and M. persicae transmits Potato virus Y (PVY), Tomato yellow top virus (ToYTV) and Tomato bottom yellow leaf virus (TBYLV) to tomato crops. Chemical constituents of essential oils have been increasingly studied because they present a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this work was to characterize Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and evaluate its potential insecticide activity against F. schultzei and M. persicae. The essential oil was obtained from fresh leaves by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus. Its yield (1.04%) was determined relative to the dry mass of the plant. Qualitative analysis was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and chemical constituent content was determined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Nine compounds were identified, with geranial (49.98%) and neral (37.78%) being the major components. The insects were sprayed with C. citratus essential oil at different concentrations using a Potter tower. The LC50 values for M. persicae and F. schultzei were 0.28% and 1.49%, respectively. Essential oil from C. citratus is a promising natural alternative for developing pesticides to manage M. persicae.