Abstract Background Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal aneuploidies by scanning cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma is rapidly becoming a first-tier aneuploidy screening test in clinical practices. With the development of whole-genome sequencing technology, small subchromosomal deletions and duplications that could not be detected by conventional karyotyping are now able to be detected with NIPT technology. Methods In the present study, we examined 8141 single pregnancies with NIPT to calculate the positive predictive values of each of the chromosome aneuploidies and the subchromosomal microdeletions and microduplications. Results We confirmed that the positive predictive values (PPV) for trisomy 13, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, and sex chromosome aneuploidy were 14.28%, 60%, 80%, and 45.83%, respectively. At the same time, we also found 51 (0.63%) positive cases for chromosomal microdeletions or microduplications but only 13 (36.11%) true-positive cases. These results indicate that NIPT for trisomy 21 detection had the highest accuracy, while accuracy was low for chromosomal microdeletion and microduplications. Conclusions Therefore, it is very important to improve the specificity, accuracy, and sensitivity of NIPT technology for the detection of subchromosomal microdeletions and microduplications.