The integrative control of diverse biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and metabolism is essential to maintain cellular and tissue homeostasis. Disruption of these underlie the development of many disease states including cancer and diabetes, as well as many of the complications that arise as a consequence of aging. These biological outputs are governed by many cellular signaling networks that function independently, and in concert, to convert changes in hormonal, mechanical and metabolic stimuli into alterations in gene expression. First identified in Drosophila melanogaster as a powerful mediator of cell division and apoptosis, the Hippo signaling pathway is a highly conserved regulator of mammalian organ size and functional capacity in both healthy and diseased tissues. Recent studies have implicated the pathway as an effector of diverse physiological cues demonstrating an essential role for the Hippo pathway as an integrative component of cellular homeostasis. In this review, we will: (a) outline the critical signaling elements that constitute the mammalian Hippo pathway, and how they function to regulate Hippo pathway-dependent gene expression and tissue growth, (b) discuss evidence that shows this pathway functions as an effector of diverse physiological stimuli and (c) highlight key questions in this developing field.