With the increasing availability and accessibility of single cell technologies, much attention has been given to delineating the specific populations of cells present in any given tissue. In recent years, hepatic macrophage heterogeneity has also begun to be examined using these strategies. While previously any macrophage in the liver was considered to be a Kupffer cell (KC), several studies have recently revealed the presence of distinct subsets of hepatic macrophages, including those distinct from KCs both under homeostatic and non-homeostatic conditions. This heterogeneity has brought the concept of macrophage plasticity into question. Are KCs really as plastic as once thought, being capable of responding efficiently and specifically to any given stimuli? Or are the differential responses observed from hepatic macrophages in distinct settings due to the presence of multiple subsets of these cells? With these questions in mind, here we examine what is currently understood regarding hepatic macrophage heterogeneity in mouse and human and examine the role of heterogeneity vs plasticity in regards to hepatic macrophage responses in settings of both pathogen-induced and sterile inflammation.