COVID-19: etiology, clinical picture, treatment

Infekciâ i Immunitet. 2020;10(3):421-445 DOI 10.15789/2220-7619-CEC-1473


Journal Homepage

Journal Title: Infekciâ i Immunitet

ISSN: 2220-7619 (Print); 2313-7398 (Online)

Publisher: Sankt-Peterburg : NIIÈM imeni Pastera

Society/Institution: St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute

LCC Subject Category: Medicine: Internal medicine: Infectious and parasitic diseases

Country of publisher: Russian Federation

Language of fulltext: Russian

Full-text formats available: PDF



M. Yu. Shchelkanov (International Scientific and Educational Center for Biological Security of Rospotrebnadzor; Federal Scientific Center of East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity, Far Eastern Branch of RAS; Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Primorsky Territory)

L. V. Kolobukhina (D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology of the N.F. Gamaleya National Scientific Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Russian Ministry of Public Health)

O. A. Burgasova (Peoples' Friendship University of Russia)

I. S. Kruzhkova (D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology of the N.F. Gamaleya National Scientific Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Russian Ministry of Public Health)

V. V. Maleev (Central Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of Rospotrebnadzor)


Blind peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 10 weeks


Abstract | Full Text

Whereas the XX century marked the history of acute respiratory disease investigation as a period for generating in-depth system of combating influenza viruses (Articulavirales: Orthomyxoviridae, Alpha-/Betainfluenzavirus) (based on environmental and virological monitoring of influenza A virus in its natural reservoir — aquatic and semi-aquatic birds — to supervising epidemic influenza), a similar system is necessary to build up in the XXI century with regard to especially dangerous betacoronaviruses (Nidovirales: Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus): Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (subgenus Sarbecovirus), Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) (Sarbecovirus), Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (Merbecovirus). This became particularly evident after pandemic potential has been revealed in 2020 by the SARS-CoV-2. This review provides an insight into the historic timeline of discovering this virus, its current taxonomy, ecology, virion morphology, life cycle, molecular biology, pathogenesis and clinical picture of the etiologically related COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) as well as data available in the scientific literature on the anti-SARS-CoV-2-effectiveness of passive immunotherapy and most debated drugs used to treat COVID-19: Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Nitazoxanide, Ivermectin, Lopinavir and Ritonavir, Camostat mesilate, Remdesivir, Ribavirin, Tocilizumab, Anakinra, corticosteroids, and type I interferons. The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection implicates decreased efficacy of artificial respiration, which, in this case might be replaced by more efficient extracorporeal membrane blood oxygenation supplemented with nitrogen oxide and/or Heliox inhalations.