The article is dedicated to the relevant issue of rural and coastal communities in Arctic Russia and Nordics development. As a result of the modern development of society, rural areas have undergone significant changes. People are leaving rural areas due to a lack of education and vocational training opportunities, unemployment, and limited social contact. Recognition of the importance of depopulation of the rural area has required all countries to look at their strategy of development in a new way. The article identifies the main directions for the development of the rural area in Arctic regions. The authors proposed measures on how to increase the attractiveness of living in rural areas by economic measures. The article identifies the main directions for the development of these territories the bioeconomy.