AIM: To preliminarily test proteomics in aqueous humor in patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by using the proteomic technology. METHODS: Aqueous humor samples were collected from patients with or without dry AMD, who underwent cataract surgery. The aqueous samples were analyzed with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology. The differential expressed proteins were analyzed with gene ontology (GO) enrichment, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. The data were partly validated by ELISA and Western blot. False discovery rate (FDR) was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 244 proteins were detected, in which 38 proteins were up-regulated and 51 were down-regulated significantly in patients with dry AMD compared with that in control groups (FDR value <1.0%). Several proteins, e.g., protein S100-A8 (S10A8), dystroglycan (DAG1), Ig alpha-1 chain C region (IGHA1), carbonic anhydrase 3 (CAH3) and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (A1AG1) were increased more than 5 times of that in control group. The bioinformatics analysis showed that dry AMD is closely associated with inflammation or immune reaction, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and remodeling of extracellular matrix. CONCLUSION: iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of aqueous humor demonstrate the differential expressions of proteins between dry AMD and control groups, providing the clues to understand the mechanisms and possible treatments of dry AMD.