Removal of Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater by Intermittent Electrocoagulation

Water. 2017;9(2):85 DOI 10.3390/w9020085

 

Journal Homepage

Journal Title: Water

ISSN: 2073-4441 (Print)

Publisher: MDPI AG

LCC Subject Category: Technology: Hydraulic engineering | Technology: Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering: Water supply for domestic and industrial purposes

Country of publisher: Switzerland

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML

 

AUTHORS

Benny Marie B. Ensano (Environmental Engineering Program, National Graduate School of Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, 1101 Quezon City, Philippines)
Laura Borea (Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Division (SEED), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy)
Vincenzo Naddeo (Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Division (SEED), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy)
Vincenzo Belgiorno (Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Division (SEED), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy)
Mark Daniel G. de Luna (Environmental Engineering Program, National Graduate School of Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, 1101 Quezon City, Philippines)
Florencio C. Ballesteros (Environmental Engineering Program, National Graduate School of Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, 1101 Quezon City, Philippines)

EDITORIAL INFORMATION

Blind peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 11 weeks

 

Abstract | Full Text

The continuous release of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the aquatic environment, as a result of the inadequate removal by conventional treatment methods, has prompted research to explore viable solutions to this rising global problem. One promising alternative is the use of electrochemical processes since they represent a simple and highly efficient technology with less footprint. In this paper, the feasibility of treating ECs (i.e., pharmaceuticals) using an intermittent electrocoagulation process, a known electrochemical technology, has been investigated. Diclofenac (DCF), carbamazepine (CBZ) and amoxicillin (AMX) were chosen as being representative of highly consumed drugs that are frequently detected in our water resources and were added in synthetic municipal wastewater. The removal efficiencies of both individual and combined pharmaceuticals were determined under different experimental conditions: hydraulic retention time (HRT) (6, 19 and 38 h), initial concentration (0.01, 4 and 10 mg/L) and intermittent application (5 min ON/20 min OFF) of current density (0.5, 1.15 and 1.8 mA/cm2). Results have shown that these parameters have significant effects on pharmaceutical degradation. Maximum removals (DCF = 90%, CBZ = 70% and AMX = 77%) were obtained at a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2, an initial concentration of 10 mg/L and HRT of 38 h.