Frontiers in Pediatrics (2018-07-01)

Measuring Airway Inflammation in Asthmatic Children

  • Laura Tenero,
  • Marco Zaffanello,
  • Michele Piazza,
  • Giorgio Piacentini

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 6


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Asthma is the most common chronic respiratory disease in children characterized by airways inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, recurrent reversible airways obstruction, and respiratory symptoms. The diagnosis of the disease is based on clinical history, airways obstruction at spirometry, and bronchial reversibility. Asthma treatment is aimed to disease control, through the use of controller treatment and monitoring lung function. However, lung function and symptoms not always reflect the underlying airways inflammation and response to the therapy. Objective parameters of asthma inflammation could be important for the clinician in the management of patients with asthma. In the last years, some studies were focused on biomarkers to identify phenotype, inflammation, and pathobiological pathways to help the clinician in the diagnosis and in personalizing the management. Accordingly, clinically feasible tests are represented by the collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Other—methods such as the evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOCs), that reflect airways inflammation and treatment efficacy, are currently used for research purposes For some of these methods, The lack of standardization in pre-collection, collection, post-collection of samples, and interpretation of the results may a problem in clinical practice. Improved these limitations, several biomarkers will be useful to distinguish patients with a different disease condition to personalize the treatment.