In this article we aim to approach some issues related to the development of traditional interpretative art in the Republic of Moldova. With the aim of studying the accordion, it has been necessary to consult different sources such as historical, ethnological, ethnomusicological and the Internet, in order to perceive its role as a folk instrument, reflected by its implantation in the traditional environment, evolution, repertoire and instrumental representatives (fiddlers). A key role was played by interviews with several personalities / representatives of traditional music, that gave us important facts about the accordion in the Republic of Moldova, covering the time of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries. An attempt was made to classify the accordion repertoire variety using criteria such as the artistic domain, the social, functional, diachronic, applicative context, etc. The scientific problems announced in the article requires a thorough complex study in the future.