Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy (Aug 2021)

Aberrantly Expressed Non-Coding RNAs in the Placenta and Their Role in the Pathophysiology of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

  • Du R,
  • Wu N,
  • Li L

Journal volume & issue
Vol. Volume 14
pp. 3719 – 3732

Abstract

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Runyu Du, Na Wu, Ling Li Department of Endocrinology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People’s Republic of ChinaCorrespondence: Ling LiDepartment of Endocrinology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No. 36, Sanhao Street, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110004, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 18940251181Fax +86 24-25944460Email [email protected]: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), one of the most common complications during pregnancy, is associated with a high risk of short- and long-term adverse effects on the mother and offspring. Placenta-derived hormones and cytokines aggravate maternal insulin resistance (IR) during pregnancy, which in turn contribute to GDM. The hyperglycemia and IR in GDM result in aberrant placental structure and function adversely affecting fetal growth and well-being. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that structural and functional alterations in the placenta contribute to the pathogenesis of GDM and GDM-related complications. Increasing evidence suggests that multiple non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and circular RNAs, are dysregulated in placentas of patients with GDM and linked to abnormal placental structure, metabolism, and function. Manipulation of ncRNA expression led to some key pathophysiological features of GDM, such as trophoblast dysfunction, changes in intracellular glucose metabolism, and inflammation. Moreover, placenta-specific ncRNAs may be potential diagnostic biomarkers and even therapeutic targets for GDM. This review summarizes data published on the involvement of aberrantly expressed placental ncRNAs in GDM and provides information on their role in the pathogenesis of GDM and GDM-associated complications.Keywords: dysregulated ncRNA, pregnancy disorder, placental dysfunction, pregnancy-related complications, trophoblast dysfunction

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