Modulation of the gut microbiota through the use of probiotics has been widely used to treat or prevent several intestinal diseases. However, inconsistent results have compromised the efficacy of this approach, especially in severe conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The purpose of our study was to develop a personalized probiotic strategy and assess its efficacy in a murine model of intestinal inflammation. Commensal bacterial strains were isolated from the feces of healthy mice and then administered back to the host as a personalized treatment in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Colonic tissues were collected for histological analysis and to investigate inflammatory markers such as Il-1β, Il-6, TGF-β, and Il-10, and the enzyme myeloperoxidase as a neutrophil marker. The group that received the personalized probiotic showed reduced susceptibility to DSS-colitis as compared to a commercial probiotic. This protection was characterized by a lower disease activity index and reduced histopathological damage in the colon. Moreover, the personalized probiotic was more effective in modulating the host immune response, leading to decreased Il-1β and Il-6 and increased TGF-β and Il-10 expression. In conclusion, our study suggests that personalized probiotics may possess an advantage over commercial probiotics in treating dysbiotic-related conditions, possibly because they are derived directly from the host’s own microbiota.