Antarctic Record (Jul 1995)

Oceanographic surveys in the Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen: Observations of the water structure in 1991-1993

  • Shuki Ushio,
  • Hajime Ito,
  • Nobuo Ono

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 39, no. 2
pp. 147 – 155


Read online

Oceanographic surveys were carried out five times in the Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen during 1991-1993. This report describes an outline of in situ observations of the water structure, temperature and salinity profiles, in the fjord. Based on the preliminary results, it is suggested that the surface layer is influenced by the fresh water inflow from melting of the surrounding snow pack or glaciers, and that the deep water mass is gradually changed in quality by the dense water intrusion from the open ocean, Fram Strait.