The article uses data contained in the records of the legitimization of children made in the District Court of the Radomsko District between 1845 and 1874. Using the statistical method, the analysis was based on sex, age, social and territorial origin, names and surnames of the children. Most of the children were born out of wedlock to parents from the lower social classes in the judicial district under study. They did not have first names that would stigmatize them and most often bore their mother’s maiden name. Almost all the cases of legitimization concerned male offspring, mostly mature men. Most often, parents wanted to prove that their son was an only son, which was associated with the desire to protect him from serving in the Russian army.