Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology (2021-02-01)

Increased Tumor Immune Microenvironment CD3+ and CD20+ Lymphocytes Predict a Better Prognosis in Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Raísa Sales de Sá,
  • Marisol Miranda Galvis,
  • Marisol Miranda Galvis,
  • Bruno Augusto Linhares Almeida Mariz,
  • Amanda Almeida Leite,
  • Luciana Schultz,
  • Oslei Paes Almeida,
  • Alan Roger Santos-Silva,
  • Clovis Antonio Lopes Pinto,
  • Pablo Agustin Vargas,
  • Kenneth John Gollob,
  • Kenneth John Gollob,
  • Luiz Paulo Kowalski,
  • Luiz Paulo Kowalski

DOI
https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.622161
Journal volume & issue
Vol. 8

Abstract

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Background: Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) causes over 350,000 cases annually and particularly impacts populations in developing countries. Smoking and alcohol consumption are major risk factors. Determining the role of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) in OTSCC outcomes can elucidate immune mechanisms behind disease progression, and can potentially identify prognostic biomarkers.Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 48 OTSCC surgical specimens from patients with tobacco and alcohol exposures. A panel of immunoregulatory cell subpopulations including T (CD3, CD4, CD8) and B (CD20) lymphocytes, dendritic cells (CD1a, CD83), macrophages (CD68), and immune checkpoint molecules programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and ligand 1 (PD-L1) were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The levels of immune effector cell subpopulations and markers were analyzed in relation to overall survival.Results: Pathological characteristics of the tumor microenvironment included inflammatory infiltrates (83.3%), desmoplasia (41.6%), and perineural invasion (50.0%). The TIME contained high levels of T cells (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) and B cells (CD20+), as well as immature (CD1a) and mature (CD83) dendritic cells, PD-1, and PD-L1. Higher numbers of TIME infiltrating CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B cells were predictive of better survival, while higher levels of CD83+ mature dendritic cells predicted better survival. CD3+ T cells were identified as an independent prognostic marker for OTSCC. Lastly, CD3+ T cells were strongly correlated with the number of CD8+ cells and PD-L1 expression.Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence that the TIME profile of OTSSC impacted prognosis. The high expression of CD3+ T cells and B cells are predictive of better overall survival and indicative of an immunologically active, inflammatory TIME in patients with better survival. The number of CD3+ T cells was an independent prognostic marker.

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