F1000Research (2017-09-01)

Meta-fibrosis links positive energy balance and mitochondrial metabolism to insulin resistance [version 1; referees: 3 approved]

  • Daniel S. Lark,
  • David H. Wasserman

DOI
https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.11653.1
Journal volume & issue
Vol. 6

Abstract

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Obesity and insulin resistance often emerge from positive energy balance and generally are linked to low-grade inflammation. This low-grade inflammation has been called “meta-inflammation” because it is a consequence of the metabolic dysregulation that can accompany overnutrition. One means by which meta-inflammation is linked to insulin resistance is extracellular matrix expansion secondary to meta-inflammation, which we define here as “meta-fibrosis”. The significance of meta-fibrosis is that it reflects a situation in which the extracellular matrix functions as a multi-level integrator of local (for example, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production) and systemic (for example, inflammation) inputs that couple to cellular processes creating insulin resistance. While adipose tissue extracellular matrix remodeling has received considerable attention, it is becoming increasingly apparent that liver and skeletal muscle extracellular matrix remodeling also contributes to insulin resistance. In this review, we address recent advances in our understanding of energy balance, mitochondrial energetics, meta-inflammation, and meta-fibrosis in the development of insulin resistance.

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