Biomedicines (Jun 2022)

A Narrative Review of <sup>99m</sup>Tc-Aprotinin in the Diagnosis of Cardiac Amyloidosis and a New Life for an Unfairly Abandoned Drug

  • Carlo Aprile,
  • Lorenzo Lodola

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 10, no. 6
p. 1377


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Several studies investigated the use of 99mTc-labelled Aprotinin as an amyloid seeker some years ago. In vitro tests showed high binding affinity for several types of amyloid fibrils accompanied by an excellent specificity. Initial human studies demonstrated good accuracy in detecting cardiac involvement. Scintigraphy results were confirmed in a group of 28 endomyocardial biopsies. Unfortunately, clinical studies were halted because of a temporary suspension of the vector protein (Trasylol) and public health concerns over prion contamination of the bovine origin compound. To obviate these limitations, efforts have been made to label a recombinant Aprotinin with 99mTc, which exhibits the same affinity for h-insulin fibrils. With the aim of developing a PET tracer, the same recombinant protein was labeled with Gallium. The introduction of a bifunctional chelator did not affect fibril affinity. Finally, a synthetic peptidic fragment, the cyclic 30-51 SS, was synthetized. After direct technetium labeling, an impressive increase in affinity was demonstrated. This peptide appears to be a potential candidate for Gallium labeling through a bifunctional chelator for PET imaging.