The paper addresses the problem of whether a private partnership can be a payer of social security contributions. On the basis of private law, a private partnership is considered a relationship under civil law created by the partnership contract and not having any legal personality. Regulations belonging to public law are not so clear on this issue and to some extent confer upon a private partnership the capacity to take part in trading. Moreover, the provisions of the Law on Social Insurance System and the Tax Ordinance Act equate the status of a private partnership with commercial law partnerships. The issue of the capacity of a private partnership to act as a payer of social security contributions, and thus the existence of the capacity of this partnership to be a party in separate proceedings relating to social security, is not resolved uniformly in the jurisprudence of the Supreme Court. The arguments contained in the reasoning of the Supreme Court decision was based on the provisions of the Civil Code, the Labour Code and definitions of a trader contained in the current and previous laws. The study carries out an analysis of the social insurance law provisions, which are a special regulation and provide a basis for considering the private partnership, not its partners, as the payer of taxes and contributions.