The article deals with the study of regional characteristics of education. The purpose of the research is to clarify the categories of “regional educational space” and “regional system of education”, as well as to determine their relationship. The main research method is the analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature on the problem. The author proposes to consider pedagogical regionalology as a scientific and theoretical basis for a comprehensive study of the education of the regions. Pedagogical regionology is presented as a direction integrating pedagogical, socio-philosophical and socio-psychological, geographical, historical, socio-economic aspects of studying the system of education. The definitions of the concepts “regional educational space” and “regional education system” are clarified, their interconnections and correlations are revealed. Тhe author concludes that these concepts are close and related, but not identical. The regional educational space is widely considered as the totality of all natural, socio-economic characteristics of the territory in their relationship with education. The regional system of education is presented as a component of the educational space of the region, which has a regulatory status and institutional organization. The structure of the regional system of education is presented from the standpoint of a functional approach. It is concluded that the socio-economic characteristics of the region affect the regional system of education, and education system, in turn, changes the territorial organization of public life.