Materials (Oct 2021)

Infections @ Trauma/Orthopedic Implants: Recent Advances on Materials, Methods, and Microbes—A Mini-Review

  • Britt Wildemann,
  • Klaus D. Jandt

DOI
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195834
Journal volume & issue
Vol. 14, no. 5834
p. 5834

Abstract

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Implants and materials are indispensable in trauma and orthopedic surgery. The continuous improvements of implant design have resulted in an optimized mechanical function that supports tissue healing and restoration of function. One of the still unsolved problems with using implants and materials is infection. Trauma and material implantation change the local inflammatory situation and enable bacterial survival and material colonization. The main pathogen in orthopedic infections is Staphylococcus aureus. The research efforts to optimize antimicrobial surfaces and to develop new anti-infective strategies are enormous. This mini-review focuses on the publications from 2021 with the keywords S. aureus AND (surface modification OR drug delivery) AND (orthopedics OR trauma) AND (implants OR nails OR devices). The PubMed search yielded 16 original publications and two reviews. The original papers reported the development and testing of anti-infective surfaces and materials: five studies described an implant surface modification, three developed an implant coating for local antibiotic release, the combination of both is reported in three papers, while five publications are on antibacterial materials but not metallic implants. One review is a systematic review on the prevention of stainless-steel implant-associated infections, the other addressed the possibilities of mixed oxide nanotubes. The complexity of the approaches differs and six of them showed efficacy in animal studies.

Keywords