Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) formed by lipidperoxidation as free forms or as enzymatic and non-enzymatic conjugates are widely used as an index of oxidative stress. Besides general measurements based on derivatizing reactions, more selective and sensitive MS based analyses have been proposed in the last decade. Untargeted and targeted methods for the measurement of free RCS and adducts have been described and their applications to in vitro and ex vivo samples have permitted the identification of many biological targets, reaction mechanisms and adducted moieties with a particular relevance to RCS protein adducts. The growing interest in protein carbonylation can be explained by considering that protein adducts are now recognized as being involved in the damaging action of oxidative stress so that their measurement is performed not only to obtain an index of lipid peroxidation but also to gain a deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress. The aim of the review is to discuss the most novel analytical approaches and their application for profiling reactive carbonyl species and their enzymatic and non-enzymatic metabolites as an index of lipid-oxidation and oxidative stress. Limits and perspectives will be discussed.