Pathogens (Aug 2021)

Specific Secondary Bile Acids Control Chicken Necrotic Enteritis

  • Mohit Bansal,
  • Tahrir Alenezi,
  • Ying Fu,
  • Ayidh Almansour,
  • Hong Wang,
  • Anamika Gupta,
  • Rohana Liyanage,
  • Danielle B. Graham,
  • Billy M. Hargis,
  • Xiaolun Sun

DOI
https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10081041
Journal volume & issue
Vol. 10, no. 1041
p. 1041

Abstract

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Necrotic enteritis (NE), mainly induced by the pathogens of Clostridium perfringens and coccidia, causes huge economic losses with limited intervention options in the poultry industry. This study investigated the role of specific bile acids on NE development. Day-old broiler chicks were assigned to six groups: noninfected, NE, and NE with four bile diets of 0.32% chicken bile, 0.15% commercial ox bile, 0.15% lithocholic acid (LCA), or 0.15% deoxycholic acid (DCA). The birds were infected with Eimeria maxima at day 18 and C. perfringens at day 23 and 24. The infected birds developed clinical NE signs. The NE birds suffered severe ileitis with villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia, epithelial line disintegration, and massive immune cell infiltration, while DCA and LCA prevented the ileitis histopathology. NE induced severe body weight gain (BWG) loss, while only DCA prevented NE-induced BWG loss. Notably, DCA reduced the NE-induced inflammatory response and the colonization and invasion of C. perfringens compared to NE birds. Consistently, NE reduced the total bile acids in the ileal digesta, while dietary DCA and commercial bile restored it. Together, this study showed that DCA and LCA reduced NE histopathology, suggesting that secondary bile acids, but not total bile acid levels, play an essential role in controlling the enteritis.

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