Internal Strife and Unrest in Later Byzantium, XIth-XIIIth Centuries (A.D. 1025-1261). The Case of Urban and Provincial Insurrections (Causes and Effects)

Byzantina Symmeikta. 1987;7(0):237-273 DOI 10.12681/byzsym.719

 

Journal Homepage

Journal Title: Byzantina Symmeikta

ISSN: 1791-4884 (Online)

Publisher: National Hellenic Research Foundation

Society/Institution: National Hellenic Research Foundation

LCC Subject Category: History (General) and history of Europe: History of Greece | History (General) and history of Europe: History (General): Medieval history

Country of publisher: Greece

Language of fulltext: German, Greek, Modern (1453-), French, English, Italian

Full-text formats available: PDF

 

AUTHORS

Alexis G.C. SAVVIDES

EDITORIAL INFORMATION

Double blind peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 16 weeks

 

Abstract | Full Text

<p>&nbsp;</p><p>Ἀ&lambda;έ&xi;&iota;&omicron;&sigmaf; &Gamma;. &Kappa;. &Sigma;&alpha;&beta;&beta;ί&delta;&eta;&sigmaf;</p><p>&nbsp;Ἐ&sigma;&omega;&tau;&epsilon;&rho;&iota;&kappa;ὲ&sigmaf; &Delta;&iota;&alpha;&mu;ά&chi;&epsilon;&sigmaf; &kappa;&alpha;ὶ Ἀ&nu;&omega;&mu;&alpha;&lambda;ί&epsilon;&sigmaf; &sigma;&tau;ὸ Ὕ&sigma;&tau;&epsilon;&rho;&omicron; &Beta;&upsilon;&zeta;ά&nu;&tau;&iota;&omicron;, 11&omicron;&sigmaf;-13&omicron;&sigmaf; &alpha;ἰ. (1025-1261 &mu;.&Chi;.). Ἡ &Pi;&epsilon;&rho;ί&pi;&tau;&omega;&sigma;&eta; &tau;ῶ&nu; Ἀ&sigma;&tau;&iota;&kappa;ῶ&nu; &kappa;&alpha;ὶ Ἐ&pi;&alpha;&rho;&chi;&iota;&alpha;&kappa;ῶ&nu; &Kappa;&iota;&nu;&eta;&mu;ά&tau;&omega;&nu; (&Alpha;ἴ&tau;&iota;&alpha; &kappa;&alpha;ὶ Ἀ&pi;&omicron;&tau;&epsilon;&lambda;έ&sigma;&mu;&alpha;&tau;&alpha;) </p><p>&Beta;&alpha;&sigma;&iota;&sigma;&mu;έ&nu;&eta; &sigma;&tau;ὶ&sigmaf; &beta;&upsilon;&zeta;&alpha;&nu;&tau;&iota;&nu;ὲ&sigmaf; &pi;&eta;&gamma;ὲ&sigmaf; &tau;ῆ&sigmaf; ἐ&pi;&omicron;&chi;ῆ&sigmaf; (&Kappa;&epsilon;&kappa;&alpha;&upsilon;&mu;έ&nu;&omicron;&sigmaf;, &Theta;&epsilon;&omicron;&phi;ύ&lambda;&alpha;&kappa;&tau;&omicron;&sigmaf; Ἀ&chi;&rho;ί&delta;&alpha;&sigmaf;, &Nu;&iota;&kappa;ή&tau;&alpha;&sigmaf; &kappa;&alpha;ὶ &Mu;&iota;&chi;&alpha;ὴ&lambda; &Chi;&omega;&nu;&iota;ά&tau;&epsilon;&sigmaf;, &Gamma;&epsilon;ώ&rho;&gamma;&iota;&omicron;&sigmaf; Ἀ&kappa;&rho;&omicron;&pi;&omicron;&lambda;ί&tau;&eta;&sigmaf;, &Theta;&epsilon;ό&delta;&omega;&rho;&omicron;&sigmaf; &Sigma;&kappa;&omicron;&upsilon;&tau;&alpha;&rho;&iota;ώ&tau;&eta;&sigmaf;, &Nu;&iota;&kappa;&eta;&phi;ό&rho;&omicron;&sigmaf; &Beta;&lambda;&epsilon;&mu;&mu;ύ&delta;&eta;&sigmaf;, &kappa;.ἄ.) &kappa;&alpha;&theta;ὼ&sigmaf; &kappa;&alpha;ὶ &sigma;έ &chi;&rho;ή&sigma;&iota;&mu;&alpha; &pi;&omicron;&rho;ί&sigma;&mu;&alpha;&tau;&alpha; &nu;&epsilon;ό&tau;&epsilon;&rho;&omega;&nu; ἐ&rho;&epsilon;&upsilon;&nu;&eta;&tau;ῶ&nu; (&Delta;. &Xi;&alpha;&nu;ά&lambda;&alpha;&tau;&omicron;&upsilon;, &Delta;. &Zeta;&alpha;&kappa;&upsilon;&theta;&eta;&nu;&omicron;ῦ, G. Ostrogorsky, &Alpha;. Kazhdan, Ἰ. &Kappa;&alpha;&rho;&alpha;&gamma;&iota;&alpha;&nu;&nu;ό&pi;&omicron;&upsilon;&lambda;&omicron;&upsilon;, M. Angold, Sp. Vryonis, Ἑ&lambda;έ&nu;&eta;&sigmaf; &Gamma;&lambda;ύ&kappa;&alpha;&tau;&zeta;&eta;-Ά&rho;&beta;&epsilon;&lambda;έ&rho;, &Kappa;&alpha;&lambda;&lambda;&iota;ό&pi;&eta;&sigmaf; &Mu;&pi;&omicron;&upsilon;&rho;&delta;ά&rho;&alpha;, &kappa;.ἄ.), ἡ &pi;&alpha;&rho;&omicron;ύ&sigma;&alpha; &mu;&epsilon;&lambda;έ&tau;&eta; ἐ&pi;&iota;&chi;&epsilon;&iota;&rho;&epsilon;ῖ &sigma;&phi;&alpha;&iota;&rho;&iota;&kappa;ὴ ἐ&xi;έ&tau;&alpha;&sigma;&eta; &tau;&omicron;ῦ &pi;&rho;&omicron;&beta;&lambda;ή&mu;&alpha;&tau;&omicron;&sigmaf; &tau;ῶ&nu; ἐ&sigma;&omega;&tau;&epsilon;&rho;&iota;&kappa;ῶ&nu; ἀ&nu;&omega;&mu;&alpha;&lambda;&iota;ῶ&nu; &pi;&omicron;ὺ ἐ&pi;&iota;&kappa;&rho;ά&tau;&eta;&sigma;&alpha;&nu; &sigma;&tau;ὸ &Beta;&upsilon;&zeta;ά&nu;&tau;&iota;&omicron; ἀ&pi;ὸ &tau;ὸ &theta;ά&nu;&alpha;&tau;&omicron; &tau;&omicron;ῦ &Beta;&alpha;&sigma;&iota;&lambda;&epsilon;ί&omicron;&upsilon; &Beta;' &Beta;&omicron;&upsilon;&lambda;&gamma;&alpha;&rho;&omicron;&kappa;&tau;ό&nu;&omicron;&upsilon; ὥ&sigmaf; &tau;ὴ&nu; ἀ&nu;&alpha;&kappa;&alpha;&tau;ά&lambda;&eta;&psi;&eta; &tau;ῆ&sigmaf; &Kappa;&omega;&nu;&sigma;&tau;&alpha;&nu;&tau;&iota;&nu;&omicron;ύ&pi;&omicron;&lambda;&eta;&sigmaf; ἀ&pi;ὸ &tau;ὸ&nu; &Mu;&iota;&chi;&alpha;ὴ&lambda; &Eta;' &Pi;&alpha;&lambda;&alpha;&iota;&omicron;&lambda;ό&gamma;&omicron;. Ἡ ἐ&xi;έ&tau;&alpha;&sigma;&eta; &alpha;ὐ&tau;ὴ &gamma;ί&nu;&epsilon;&tau;&alpha;&iota; &mu;έ&sigma;&alpha; &sigma;&tau;ὰ &gamma;&nu;&omega;&sigma;&tau;ὰ &pi;&lambda;&alpha;ί&sigma;&iota;&alpha; &tau;ῆ&sigmaf; ὕ&pi;&alpha;&rho;&xi;&eta;&sigmaf; &mu;&iota;ᾶ&sigmaf; &mu;&alpha;&kappa;&rho;ό&chi;&rho;&omicron;&nu;&eta;&sigmaf; ἐ&mu;&phi;ύ&lambda;&iota;&alpha;&sigmaf; &delta;&iota;&alpha;&mu;ά&chi;&eta;&sigmaf; ἀ&nu;ά&mu;&epsilon;&sigma;&alpha; &sigma;&tau;ὴ&nu; ἀ&sigma;&tau;&iota;&kappa;ή &gamma;&rho;&alpha;&phi;&epsilon;&iota;&omicron;&kappa;&rho;&alpha;&tau;ί&alpha; &kappa;&alpha;ὶ &tau;ὴ&nu; ἐ&pi;&alpha;&rho;&chi;&iota;&alpha;&kappa;ὴ &sigma;&tau;&rho;&alpha;&tau;&iota;&omega;&tau;&iota;&kappa;ὴ ἀ&rho;&iota;&sigma;&tau;&omicron;&kappa;&rho;&alpha;&tau;ί&alpha;, &phi;&alpha;&iota;&nu;ό&mu;&epsilon;&nu;&omicron; &pi;&omicron;ὺ &kappa;&upsilon;&rho;&iota;ά&rho;&chi;&eta;&sigma;&epsilon; &sigma;&tau;ὴ&nu; &pi;&omicron;&lambda;&iota;&tau;&iota;&kappa;ὴ &kappa;&alpha;ὶ &kappa;&omicron;&iota;&nu;&omega;&nu;&iota;&kappa;ὴ &zeta;&omega;ὴ &tau;&omicron;ῦ &beta;&upsilon;&zeta;&alpha;&nu;&tau;&iota;&nu;&omicron;ῦ &kappa;&rho;ά&tau;&omicron;&upsilon;&sigmaf;, ἰ&delta;&iota;&alpha;ί&tau;&epsilon;&rho;&alpha; &kappa;&alpha;&tau;ὰ &tau;ὸ&nu; 11&omicron; &alpha;ἰ.</p><p>&Tau;ὸ &beta;&alpha;&sigma;&iota;&kappa;ὸ &theta;έ&mu;&alpha; &tau;ῆ&sigmaf; &mu;&epsilon;&lambda;έ&tau;&eta;&sigmaf;, &delta;&eta;&lambda;. &tau;ὰ &alpha;ἴ&tau;&iota;&alpha; &kappa;&alpha;ὶ ἀ&pi;&omicron;&tau;&epsilon;&lambda;έ&sigma;&mu;&alpha;&tau;&alpha; &pi;&omicron;ὺ &chi;&alpha;&rho;&alpha;&kappa;&tau;ή&rho;&iota;&zeta;&alpha;&nu; &tau;ὰ &sigma;&tau;&alpha;&sigma;&iota;&alpha;&sigma;&tau;&iota;&kappa;ὰ &kappa;&alpha;ὶ &tau;ὰ &alpha;ὐ&tau;&omicron;&nu;&omicron;&mu;&iota;&sigma;&tau;&iota;&kappa;ὰ &kappa;&iota;&nu;ή&mu;&alpha;&tau;&alpha; &sigma;&tau;ὴ&nu; &alpha;ὐ&tau;&omicron;&kappa;&rho;&alpha;&tau;&omicron;&rho;ί&alpha; &kappa;&alpha;&tau;ὰ &tau;ὴ&nu; ἐ&xi;&epsilon;&tau;&alpha;&zeta;ό&mu;&epsilon;&nu;&eta; &pi;&epsilon;&rho;ί&omicron;&delta;&omicron; (&delta;&eta;&lambda;. ἐ&kappa;&epsilon;ῖ&nu;&alpha; &pi;&omicron;ύ &sigma;&tau;&rho;έ&phi;&omicron;&nu;&tau;&alpha;&nu; &kappa;&alpha;&tau;ά &tau;ῆ&sigmaf; &kappa;&epsilon;&nu;&tau;&rho;&iota;&kappa;ή&sigmaf; ἐ&xi;&omicron;&upsilon;&sigma;ί&alpha;&sigmaf; &mu;ὲ ἄ&mu;&epsilon;&sigma;&omicron; &sigma;&tau;ό&chi;&omicron; &tau;&omicron;&upsilon;&sigmaf; &tau;ὴ&nu; ἀ&nu;&alpha;&tau;&rho;&omicron;&pi;ὴ &tau;&omicron;ῦ &alpha;ὐ&tau;&omicron;&kappa;&rho;ά&tau;&omicron;&rho;&alpha; &kappa;&alpha;ὶ &tau;ὸ &sigma;&phi;&epsilon;&tau;&epsilon;&rho;&iota;&sigma;&mu;ὸ &tau;ῆ&sigmaf; ἐ&xi;&omicron;&upsilon;&sigma;ί&alpha;&sigmaf;, &kappa;&alpha;ὶ ἐ&kappa;&epsilon;ῖ&nu;&alpha;<strong> </strong>&kappa;&alpha;&tau;ὰ &tau;ὰ ὁ&pi;&omicron;ῖ&alpha;<strong> </strong>&omicron;ί &kappa;&iota;&nu;&eta;&mu;&alpha;&tau;ί&epsilon;&sigmaf; &alpha;ὐ&tau;&omicron;&alpha;&nu;&alpha;&kappa;&eta;&rho;ύ&sigma;&sigma;&omicron;&nu;&tau;&alpha;&nu; &alpha;&nu;&epsilon;&xi;ά&rho;&tau;&eta;&tau;&omicron;&iota; ά&pi;&omicron; &tau;ή&nu; &kappa;&epsilon;&nu;&tau;&rho;&iota;&kappa;ὴ ἐ&xi;&omicron;&upsilon;&sigma;ί&alpha;, &chi;&omega;&rho;ὶ&sigmaf; &pi;ά&nu;&tau;&omega;&sigmaf; &nu;ὰ ἐ&pi;&iota;&delta;&iota;ώ&kappa;&omicron;&upsilon;&nu; &tau;ὸ&nu; ἐ&kappa;&theta;&rho;&omicron;&nu;&iota;&sigma;&mu;ὸ &tau;&omicron;ῦ ἡ&gamma;&epsilon;&mu;ό&nu;&alpha; &kappa;&alpha;ὶ &tau;ὴ&nu; ἀ&nu;&alpha;&tau;&rho;&omicron;&pi;ὴ &tau;&omicron;ῦ status quo &sigma;&tau;ὴ&nu; &alpha;ὐ&tau;&omicron;&kappa;&rho;&alpha;&tau;&omicron;&rho;ί&alpha;), ἔ&chi;&epsilon;&iota; &pi;&rho;ό&sigma;&phi;&alpha;&tau;&alpha; &mu;&epsilon;&lambda;&epsilon;&tau;&eta;&theta;&epsilon;ῖ ἀ&pi;ὸ &tau;ὸ &sigma;&upsilon;&gamma;&gamma;&rho;&alpha;&phi;έ&alpha; &sigma;&tau;ὴ &delta;&iota;&delta;&alpha;&kappa;&tau;&omicron;&rho;&iota;&kappa;ή &tau;&omicron;&upsilon; &delta;&iota;&alpha;&tau;&rho;&iota;&beta;ή, &epsilon;ἰ&delta;&iota;&kappa;ό&tau;&epsilon;&rho;&alpha; &gamma;&iota;ὰ &tau;ὴ&nu; &pi;&epsilon;&rho;ί&omicron;&delta;&omicron; &tau;ῶ&nu; Ἀ&gamma;&gamma;έ&lambda;&omega;&nu;, &tau;ῶ&nu; &Lambda;&alpha;&sigma;&kappa;&alpha;&rho;&iota;&delta;ῶ&nu; &tau;ῆ&sigmaf; &Nu;ί&kappa;&alpha;&iota;&alpha;&sigmaf; &kappa;&alpha;ὶ &tau;ῶ&nu; &Mu;&epsilon;&gamma;&alpha;&lambda;&omicron;&kappa;&omicron;&mu;&nu;&eta;&nu;ῶ&nu; &tau;ῆ&sigmaf; &Tau;&rho;&alpha;&pi;&epsilon;&zeta;&omicron;ύ&nu;&tau;&alpha;&sigmaf;.</p>&Sigma;&tau;ὸ &tau;έ&lambda;&omicron;&sigmaf; &tau;ῆ&sigmaf; &mu;&epsilon;&lambda;έ&tau;&eta;&sigmaf; &pi;&alpha;&rho;&alpha;&tau;ί&theta;&epsilon;&tau;&alpha;&iota; &lambda;&epsilon;&pi;&tau;&omicron;&mu;&epsilon;&rho;ὴ&sigmaf; &sigma;&upsilon;&gamma;&kappa;&rho;&iota;&tau;&iota;&kappa;ὸ&sigmaf; &pi;ί&nu;&alpha;&kappa;&alpha;&sigmaf; &tau;ῶ&nu; &kappa;&iota;&nu;&eta;&mu;ά&tau;&omega;&nu; &tau;ῆ&sigmaf; &pi;&epsilon;&rho;&iota;ό&delta;&omicron;&upsilon; 1025-1261, ὅ&pi;&omicron;&upsilon; &alpha;&nu;&alpha;&phi;έ&rho;&omicron;&nu;&tau;&alpha;&iota; &omicron;ἱ &kappa;&iota;&nu;&eta;&mu;&alpha;&tau;ί&epsilon;&sigmaf; (&sigma;ὲ &chi;&rho;&omicron;&nu;&omicron;&lambda;&omicron;&gamma;&iota;&kappa;ή &sigma;ύ&gamma;&kappa;&rho;&iota;&sigma;&eta; &mu;ὲ &tau;ὶ&sigmaf; &beta;&alpha;&sigma;&iota;&lambda;&epsilon;ῖ&epsilon;&sigmaf; &tau;ῶ&nu; &alpha;ὐ&tau;&omicron;&kappa;&rho;&alpha;&tau;ό&rho;&omega;&nu;), &omicron;ἱ &chi;&rho;&omicron;&nu;&omicron;&lambda;&omicron;&gamma;ί&epsilon;&sigmaf; &tau;&omicron;ῦ &kappa;ά&theta;&epsilon; &kappa;&iota;&nu;ή&mu;&alpha;&tau;&omicron;&sigmaf;, ὁ &tau;ό&pi;&omicron;&sigmaf; ἐ&kappa;&delta;ή&lambda;&omega;&sigma;ή&sigmaf; &tau;&omicron;&upsilon;, &tau;ὸ &epsilon;ἶ&delta;&omicron;&sigmaf; &tau;&omicron;&upsilon; (&pi;.&chi;. &sigma;&tau;&alpha;&sigma;&iota;&alpha;&sigma;&tau;&iota;&kappa;ό, &alpha;&upsilon;&tau;&omicron;&nu;&omicron;&mu;&iota;&sigma;&tau;&iota;&kappa;ό, &sigma;&upsilon;&nu;&omega;&mu;&omicron;&tau;&iota;&kappa;ό, &kappa;.ἄ.), ἐ&nu;ῶ &pi;&alpha;&rho;ά&lambda;&lambda;&eta;&lambda;&alpha; ἀ&nu;&alpha;&phi;έ&rho;&epsilon;&tau;&alpha;&iota; &kappa;&alpha;ὶ ἡ &kappa;&omicron;&pi;ὴ &nu;&omicron;&mu;&iota;&sigma;&mu;ά&tau;&omega;&nu; (ὅ&pi;&omicron;&upsilon; &kappa;&alpha;ὶ ὅ&tau;&alpha;&nu; ἔ&gamma;&iota;&nu;&epsilon;) ἐ&kappa; &mu;έ&rho;&omicron;&upsilon;&sigmaf; &tau;ῶ&nu; &kappa;&iota;&nu;&eta;&mu;&alpha;&tau;&iota;ῶ&nu; &alpha;ὐ&tau;ῶ&nu;.