Background: Despite the passing of many years of introduction of peritoneal dialysis as a replacement therapy for renal function, the rate of acceptance of this method is still low. This study aimed to determine the effect of educational program based on the removal of barrierson knowledge and intention to do peritoneal dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease. Materials and Methods: In a quasi-experimental pre-test-post-test study, 45 patients with peritoneal dialysis who had criteria for entering the study were selected in a purposive sampling method. The research instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire. After the sampling, an educational program based on the removal reported barriers in the research background was presented to the subjects. The program was presented individually and mainly in a 60- to 75-minute session. The results were analyzed by paired t-test and McNemar test. Results According to the results of this study, the implementation of educational program based on removal of barriers significantly increased the knowledge of patients about peritoneal dialysis (P<0.01). Although the prevalence of patients with peritoneal dialysis increased in the post-test phase, the results showed that this increase was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Providing an educational program based on removal of barriers can increase knowledge of the patients about the peritoneal dialysis in the short term. In order to increase their willingness and practical intention to perform this type of dialysis, long-term interventions at the hospital and family levels are required.