Abstract Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignant tumors of the digestive system with high incidence and mortality rate worldwide. Therefore, exploring the pathogenesis of EC and searching for new targeted therapies are the current research hotspot for EC treatment. Long non‐coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are endogenous RNAs with more than 200 nucleotides, but without protein‐coding function. In recent years, lncRNAs have gradually become the focuses in the field of non‐coding RNA. Some lncRNAs have been proved to be closely related to the pathogenesis of EC. Many lncRNAs are abnormally expressed in EC and participate in many biological processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis by inhibiting or promoting target gene expression. LncRNAs can also regulate the progression of EC through epithelial‐mesenchymal transformation (EMT), which is closely related to the occurrence, development, and prognosis of EC. In this article, we review and discuss the involvement of lncRNAs in the progression of EC.