A Concurrent Exposure to Arsenic and Fluoride from Drinking Water in Chihuahua, Mexico

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015;12(5):4587-4601 DOI 10.3390/ijerph120504587

 

Journal Homepage

Journal Title: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

ISSN: 1661-7827 (Print); 1660-4601 (Online)

Publisher: MDPI AG

LCC Subject Category: Medicine

Country of publisher: Switzerland

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, ePUB, XML

 

AUTHORS

Carmen González-Horta (Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31125, Mexico)
Lourdes Ballinas-Casarrubias (Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31125, Mexico)
Blanca Sánchez-Ramírez (Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31125, Mexico)
María C. Ishida (Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31125, Mexico)
Angel Barrera-Hernández (Departamento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Mexico D. F. 07360, Mexico)
Daniela Gutiérrez-Torres (Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31125, Mexico)
Olga L. Zacarias (Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31125, Mexico)
R. Jesse Saunders (Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461, USA)
Zuzana Drobná (Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461, USA)
Michelle A. Mendez (Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461, USA)
Gonzalo García-Vargas (Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango (UJED), Gómez Palacio, Durango 35050, Mexico)
Dana Loomis (IARC Monographs Section, IARC/WHO, Lyon Cedex 69372, France)
Miroslav Stýblo (Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461, USA)
Luz M. Del Razo (Departamento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Mexico D. F. 07360, Mexico)

EDITORIAL INFORMATION

Blind peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 11 weeks

 

Abstract | Full Text

Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F−) are naturally occurring drinking water contaminants. However, co-exposure to these contaminants and its effects on human health are understudied. The goal of this study was examined exposures to iAs and F− in Chihuahua, Mexico, where exposure to iAs in drinking water has been associated with adverse health effects. All 1119 eligible Chihuahua residents (>18 years) provided a sample of drinking water and spot urine samples. iAs and F− concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.1 to 419.8 µg As/L and from 0.05 to 11.8 mg F−/L. Urinary arsenic (U-tAs) and urinary F− (U-F−) levels ranged from 0.5 to 467.9 ng As/mL and from 0.1 to 14.4 µg F−/mL. A strong positive correlation was found between iAs and F− concentrations in drinking water (rs = 0.741). Similarly, U-tAs levels correlated positively with U-F− concentrations (rs = 0.633). These results show that Chihuahua residents exposed to high iAs concentrations in drinking water are also exposed to high levels of F−, raising questions about possible contribution of F− exposure to the adverse effects that have so far been attributed only to iAs exposure. Thus, investigation of possible interactions between iAs and F− exposures and its related health risks deserves immediate attention.