Energies (Apr 2021)
Subcritical Hydrothermal Co-Liquefaction of Process Rejects at a Wastepaper-Based Paper Mill with Waste Soybean Oil
This study used the subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction technique (SHLT) in the co- liquefaction of process rejects at a wastepaper-based paper mill (PRWPM) and waste soybean oil (WSO) for the production of biofuels and bio-char material. PRWPM emits complicated waste composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and plastic from sealing film. The waste is produced from the recycled paper process of a mill plant located in central Taiwan. The source of WSO is the rejected organic waste from a cooking oil factory located in north Taiwan. PRWPM and WSO are suitable for use as fuels, but due to their high oxygen content, their use as commercial liquid fuels is not frequent, thus making deoxygenation and hydrogenation necessary. The temperature and pressure of SHLT were set at 523–643 K and 40–250 bar, respectively. The experimental conditions included solvent ratios of oil–water, temperature, reaction time, and ratios of solvent to PRWPM. The analysis results contained approximated components, heating values, elements, surface features, simulated distillations, product compositions, and recovery yields. The HHV of the product occurred at an oil–water ratio of 75:25, with a value of 38.04 MJ kg−1. At an oil–water ratio of 25:75, the liquid oil-phase product of SHTL has the highest heating value 42.02 MJ kg−1. Higher WSO content implies a lower heating value of the oil-phase product. The simulated distillation result of the oil-phase product with higher content of alcohol and alkanes obtained at the oil–water ratio of 25:75 is better than the other ratios. Here, the carbon number of the oil product is between C8–C36. The product conversion rate rises with an increase of the WSO ratio. It is proved that blending soybean oil with water can significantly enhance the quality of liquefied oil and the conversion rate of PRWPM. Therefore, the solid and liquid biomass wastes co-liquefaction to produce gas and liquid biofuels under SHLT are quite feasible.