Yoga is basically a group of physical and mental practices or disciplines involving physical movements (asana), special breathing techniques (pranayama) and deep concentration (meditation). Yoga has become popular in recent years due to its stress and anxiety-reducing, mood-healing and welfare-enhancing features as well as its cardiorespiratory, metabolic and physical effects. Although the improvement in cognitive performance provided by yoga practices has been clinically demonstrated in many studies, the mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. The purpose of this review was to investigate the effects of asana, pranayama and meditation on the mental and general health of the body through neurons. It was concluded that asana, pranayama and meditation practices caused activation of alpha, beta and teta waves, and had positive effects on perception, memory and mood. Further research should focus on the effect of yoga on different neurological disorders and compare different yoga styles, which will lead to the design of specific yoga programs for specific neurological disorders.