The ore body has a great influence on the stability of surrounding rock and mining safety under different mining modes, and the reasonable selection of mining mode depends on other characteristics, such as ore structure surface feature, rock mass mechanical property, and ground stress distribution. Given the insufficient mining research data, this study establishes a 3D model by using the FLAC3D calculation program. Through numerical simulation and other technical means, a preliminary study on plastic and minimum stress changes during horizontal pillar mining, stress changes under different mining modes, and the effect comparison of full filling mining modes is conducted. Results show that the surrounding rock at the corner of pillar 1 is damaged, the plastic zone decreases, and the minimum stress in each working procedure increases slightly. The area of the plastic zone in alternate mining is smaller to that in continuous mining. This study provides a theoretical basis for ore body mining.